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History of Goa
In the last Pleistocene Age about 10,000
B.C., the bottom of the Arabian Sea rose up by the tectonec movement and
formed the level mass available on the Western Coast known as the
Malabar Coast. Goa forms a part of that land mass. This movement broke
the huge late rite caps of the rocks and threw them into the sea where
we today find evidence of the same. Evidence of this is also found in
the discovery of the conch shell in Surla village, fossilized marine
conches discovered near Surla and basalitic pillars discovered near Riva
village. We also have evidence of coral reefs at Malvan and near
Mormugoa harbour. The dating of the coral reefs at Netiana islands also
establishes the same findings.
Historians like Anand Ramakrishna Sinai Dhume have found evidence of Sumerian influence and culture in Goa. The discoveries of Sumerian signs in a late rite Cave at SavoiVere, as well as other signs of this influence are traced by Dhume. In his opinion, 'the wealth of archaeological, socioreligious, cultural anthropological, sociopolitical, legal evidence as well as the comparative study of ancient Sumerian society and its impact' show positive signs of Sumerian settlements in Goa around 2000 B.C.
The first wave of the Aryans came about 2400 B.C. and settled in Goa, they brought with them the Vedic ideas. They were joined by the Sumerians in about 2000 B.C. A second wave of Aryans came about 700 B.C. These consisted of Bhojas, Chediyas and Saraswatis Brahmins, while these tribes were in the area of Goa for quite a few hundred years, the copper plates which are the only real evidence of these rulers namely the Bhojas are only available of a much later period. The Devaraja Shiroda copper plate is sued from Chandraura (present Chander) village of Salcete Taluka gives us information of the grants and names of officials. The exact dating is difficult. The Asamkita Hire Gutle cop per place tells of King Asamkita of Bhoja Dynasty and his gifts of land to a Buddhist Vihara. The Asamkitavar man Ropbli copper plate talks of a grant made to a Brahmin. The Kapar divarma Arya copper plate state sabout the gift made by King Kapar divarman of the Bhoja Dynasty. The language is Sanskrit and in prose. The Prithvimallavarman Bandode cop per plate. States about the grant made by King Prithvimallavarman of Bhoja lineage to a Madhavarya of the Agni veshya Gotra. The Prithvimallavarman Bandode copper place B is a charter granted by King Prithvimavaflayar man of the Bhoja dynasty to Damarya of the Bhardwaja Gotra. The Anirjitav arman Bandode copper plate is in Sanskrit language. The charter is writ ten in prose and is attributed to 6th century A.D. The charter is of Konkan Maurya Maharaja Anirjitavarman. The Chandravarman 'Shivapur copper plate describes the grant made by King Chandravarman to a monastery situated at Shivapur. These plates are evidences of the fact that the Boas were ruling in the Goa Area for some period of time between the 6th and the 7th century. There is also evidence of the Konkan Mauryas ruling partially over the area occupied by the Bhojas. The Mauryas in turn were subdued by the Chalukyas of Badami. We have according to Dr. V.T. Gune as many as eight copper plate grants of the Chalukya Emperors of Badami. A.R.S. Dhume disputes some of these copper plates as evidence of the Chalukya rule in Goa. We have the copper plate of Pulakesin II of the period A.D. 61142. At worst we can presume that while evidence is lacking to completely link Goa under the sway of the chalukyas till the Silaharas of South Konkan took over from them, we can presume that the Chalukyas may have continued their control over Goa area.
The Silaharas ruled in Goa from 750 to 1020 A.D. We have two copper plates from Kharepatna which tell us that Shanaphulla, the founder of the Goa Dynasty of Shilahara of South Konkana obtained the lordship of Sinhala (Simhalesha) from Krishna I of the Rastrakuta Dynasty. Krishna I succeeded Dantedurga in A.D. 759. He ruled from 76595. Aiyapa, the Shilahara King, invaded Chandrapura and celebrated his victory over that kingdom by bathing in coconut water. He ruled from 82045 A.D. Avasara II (892920 A.D.), son of Adityavarman, succeeded him. He also helped the rulers of Chandrapura and Chamulya, The Chikodec Plate of Avasara III states that Bhima (94570 A.D.) annexed Chandramandala. Rattaraja (9951020 A.D.) acknowledges suzerainty of Tailapa, the Chalukya King in A.D 980. He also refers to Satyashraya, the son of Tailapa. Another grant of Rattaraja is dated 24th December A.D. 1010. The Shilahara Rule in Goa seems to have ended within about 15 years of this grant. Jayasimha II, brother of Chalukya Vikramaditya V invaded Goa and took over the Area, ending the Konkan Silahara rule. The Kolapur Shilaharas who seem to have been made overlords of Goa by the Chalukyas and the Thana Silaharas as per the Kharapata plate of Anantadeva of the Thana Shilaharas, were always fighting for the suprmacy of the entire Konkan area. This lead to Shashthadeva II of the Kadambas to takeover Southern Konkan.
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